12.0 postpositions (adhedbith)
Because of the rich set of locative cases available, most prepositional concepts can be expressed using the these cases only. For this reason, pure prepositional phrases are rare in ámman îar. However, postpositions may be used to extend or clarify the case expressions.
There are five classes of postpositions in ámman îar. Each class is based on a postpositional suffix and each class requires a specific case for the noun used in the postpositional phrase.
12.1.1 directional postpositions
Most directionals can be expressed using the locative cases only, making these postpositions rare. They tend to be used only to emphasize the direction specified by the locative case and therefore tend to take sentential stress. The head noun of a postpositional phrase using a directional postposition must take the ablative case.
i londasîan voronnîon hoûi FROM Port Voron (as opposed to "TO Port Voron") i londas -ian voronnion ho -ûi . :ABLAT :DIRECTION. Port from of Voron from .
12.1.2 spatial postpositions
These are the most common of the postpositions because they serve to specify the spatial position of the head noun to a degree not possible using the locative cases alone. The head noun of a postpositional phrase using a spatial postposition must take the adessive case.
i balgîar amda above the table i palag -iar am -da . :ADESS :SPATIAL. The table at above .
12.1.3 temporal postpositions
Temporal postpositions locate the head noun in time. The head noun of a postpositional phrase using a temporal postposition must take the dative case.
i linnarren adhla after the song i linnar -en adh -la . :DAT :TEMP. The song after .
12.1.4 associative postpositions
Associative postpositions express an association to or relationship with the head noun. The head noun of a postpositional phrase using an associative postposition must take the dative case.
iluvatarren anîe for Iluvatar iluvatar -en an -ie . :DAT :ASSOC. Iluvatar for .
12.1.5 instrumental postpositions
Instrumental postpositions, like directionals are rarely used except to emphasize the instrumental relationship. The head noun of a postpositional phrase using an instrumental postposition must take the instrumental case.
megillos nama with a sword (as opposed to with a club) megil -os na -ma . :INSTR :INSTR. sword with with .