10.0 adjective morphology (bethfennar inaglarveth)
Adjectives in ámman îar take the form of lexically distinct noun phrase modifiers, nonnumeric quantifiers and numeric quantifiers.
10.1 adjective classes
Adjectives are identified with an adjectival prefix that defines the semantics of the relationship with the nouns that they modify.
10.1.1 descriptive adjectives
i rîel vemarlis The beautiful woman i riel ve- marlis. DESC: . The woman like beauty.
10.1.2 purposive adjectives
asaldril parist cutting board asaldril pa- rist . PURP: . board for cutting.
10.1.3 size adjectives
i risthel mabeleg The large knife i risthel ma- beleg. SIZE: . The knife size large.
10.1.4 color adjectives
i gair demor The black ship i gair de- mor . COLOR: . The ship colored black.
10.1.5 age adjectives
i sirdhar lorsëirron The ancient river i sirdhar la- orseirron. AGE: . The river age ancient .
10.1.6 count adjectives
in sildain bebeleg The many boys in sildain be- beleg. COUNT: . The boys count many .
10.1.7 origin adjectives
i fadh haforod The north wind i fadh ha- forod. ORG: . The wind from north.
10.1.8 material adjectives
ir antharon galdar The wooden pole ir antharon ge- aldar. MAT: . The pole made of wood .
NOTE: galdar < ge-aldar literally means "made of tree", but has been lexicalized as the adjective "of wood" or "wooden".
10.1.9 shape adjectives
i garil tacom The round hat i garil ta- com . SHAPE: . The hat shaped round.
As in English, adjectives may be attributive adjectives, i.e. those that directly modify the noun or predicate adjectives, i.e. those that form a predicate construction.
10.2.1 attributive adjectives
Attributive Adjectives follow the noun that they modify.
i gurunaran demith The Gray Wizard i gurunaran de- mith. ADJ . The wizard gray .
10.2.2 predicate adjectives
Predicate Adjectives also follow the noun, but the adjectival prefix detaches from the adjective and is placed at the end of the adjective phrase. In this position, the adjectival particle takes auxiliary verb inflections.
gurunaran mith das The wizard is gray. i gurunaran mith de- -0 -as . AP: :DEF :PRES. the wizard gray colored is .
10.2.2.2 semantic aspectuals
i vastmëar arun vecorîeth The soup is hot. (it is hot relative to some norm) i vastmear arun ve- -cor -i -eth . AP: :REL :PERF :PAST. the soup hot like is .
vastmëar arun varîeth The soup may be hot. (it is possible that it is hot) i vastmear arun ve- ar- -i -eth . AP: SPEC: :PERF :PAST. the soup hot like may be .
i gurunaran mith udas The wizard is not gray. i gurunaran mith u- de- -as . NEG: AP: :PRES. the wizard gray not colored is .
10.3 adjective phrases
Although NPs containing multiple adjectives are rare in the spoken language, they can be formed using conjoined adjectives, thus:
i gurlavan debaran The brown fox i gurlavan velim The quick fox i gurlavan debaran na lim vas The quick, brown fox (lit. the brown fox is quick) i gurlavan debaran na velim na orneth las The old, quick, brown fox (lit. the brown and quick fox is old)
Note: an alternative form of the second example has been attested in some dialects, i.e.
i gurlavan debaran na velim the quick, brown fox (lit the brown and quick fox)
This form, however, is always limited to two adjective modifiers and one would never hear an alternate of the third example above. i.e.
*i gurlavan debaran na velim na lorneth the old, quick, brown fox (lit. the brown and quick and old fox)
10.4 adjective degree
Adjective degree is specified using a degree particle that follows the adjective.
eni galdránne caril mabeleg cummilarth Galdor wore a big hat. (elieth) eni galdranne caril 0 mabeleg cummilarth. did Galdor hat POS big wear .
The equative is formed by following the adjective with the degree particle amos. The adjective may in turn be preceded by the standard of comparison, which is expressed in the genitive case.
enir ægnoranne caril galdrannîon mabeleg amos cummilarth ægnoran wore a hat as big as Galdor"s (hat) (elieth) enir ægnoranne caril galdran -ion mabeleg amos cumilarth. :GEN EQU . did ægnor hat Galdor "s big as wear .
The comparative is formed by following the adjective with the degree particle amol. The adjective may in turn be preceded by the standard of comparison, which is expressed in the genitive case.
enir ægnoranne caril galdrannîon mabeleg amol cummilarth ægnoran wore a bigger hat than Galdor (elieth) eni ægnoranne caril galdran -ion mabeleg amol cumilarth. :GEN COMP . did ægnor hat Galdor "s big -er than wear .
The superlative is formed by following the adjective with the degree particle amon. The resulting phrase is pronounced as one word with the accent on amon.
eni luthîelle caril mabeleg amon cummilarth Luthiel wore the biggest hat (elieth) eni luthielle caril mabeleg amon cummilarth. SUPER . did Luthiel hat big -est wear .
Non-numeric quantifiers include the following:
10.6 numeric quantifiers