The Pages of The Gray Wizard



11.0 adverb morphology (bethfennar ishenarveth)

The class known as Adverbs represents a heterogeneous group of words whose most frequent function is to specify the mode of action of the verb.

11.0 Adverb Morphology
        11.1 Adverb Classes
                11.1.1 Manner
                11.1.2 Place
                11.1.3 Time
                11.1.4 Frequency
                11.1.5 Degree
        11.2 Adverbial Degree
                11.2.1 Positive
                11.2.2 Equative
                11.2.3 Comparative
                11.2.4 Superlative
        11.3 Sentential Adverbs
        11.4 Disjuncts
        11.5 Degree Modifiers

11.1 adverb classes

Adverbs are identified with an adverbial suffix that defines the semantics of the relationship with the predicates that they modify.

class suffix semantics
manner -me  answers the question how?
place -de  answers the question where?
time -le  answers the question when?
frequency -îen  answers the question how often?
degree îe  describes the intensity or degree of an action
interrogative -ais  wh- words that mark a question, the answer to which is expected to be adverbial in function

11.1.1 adverbs of manner

alîel errincenel marlisme életh 
She danced beautifully

aliel errincenel marlis    -me     eleth.
                           :ADVMAN      .
she   dance      beautiful how?    did  .

11.1.2 adverbs of place

erhenel omadhe 
I looked everywhere.

(ner) erhenel omad       -de   .
(I  ) look    everyplace where?.

The Spatial Deictic Demonstrative Determiners are used to form locative adverbials.

indefinite indefinite or unknown location merde yonder
distal definite location, distant from speaker derde there
proximal definite location, near speaker nerde here

11.1.3 adverbs of time

alan életh an alîelin orgûenon valme adhille 
Afterwards he apoligized to her

alan eleth an alielin orgûenon valme adhil    -le   .
                                               :TIME . 
he   did      to her  apologize      aftertime when?.

NOTE: The adverbial phrase orgûenon valme. These formation act as compound verbs in ámman îar and are covered below under Adverbials.


The Temporal Deictic Demonstrative Determiners are used to form locative adjectives.

indefinite indefinite or unknown time merle then
distal definite time, distant from present derle then
proximal definite time, near present nerle now

11.1.4 adverbs of frequency

i galdránne életh ini lóndas vornîon ervarisel oromthilîen 
Galdor has never been to Port Voron.

i galdranne eleth ini londas vornion.
Galdor      did       Port Voron    .

ervarisel oromthil -ien      .
                   :FREQ     .
go        notime   how often?.

11.1.5 adverbs of degree

ciröinar errutharth limîe 
Wizards anger quickly.

ciroinar errutharth lim -ie .
Wizards  anger      quickly .

11.2 adverbial degree

Adverbs may be qualified by one of four degree particles which immediately precede the adverb.

degree particle
positive -
equative emos
comparative emol
superlative emon

Note that these are similar to the particles that specify adjective degree, but in the case of adverbs they precede rather than follow the adverb.

11.2.1 positive

i gáldran ervathel orlimîe életh 
Galdor ate slowly

i galdran ervathel 0    orlimie.
                   POS:        .
  Galdor  eat           slowly .

11.2.2 equative

i gáldran ervathel nethnar emos orlimîe életh 
Galdor ate as slowly as a child.

i galdran ervathel nethnar emos orlimie.
                           EQ          .
  Galdor  eat      child   as   slowly .

11.2.3 comparative

i gáldran ervathel nethnar emol orlimîe életh 
Galdor ate more slowly than a child.

i galdran ervathel nethnar emon orlimie     .
                           COMP             .
  Galdor  eat      child   more slowly than .

11.2.4 superlative

i gáldran ervathel oma emon orlimîe életh 
Galdor ate more slowly than a child.

i galdran ervathel oma emon  orlimie.
                       SUPER        .
  Galdor  eat      all most  slowly .

11.3 sentential adverbs

Sentential adverbs : modify or enhance the entire proposition (Anyway,...;Slowly,...;Carefully,...; In the first place,...;)

Carefully she poured the wine (Modal-like)
She carefully poured the wine
She poured the wine carefully

11.4 disjuncts

Disjuncts: which reveal the speaker's evaluation of the propositions or implications of the rest of the sentence. (Hopefully,...; Gleefully,...; Naturally,...,Of course....)]

11.5 degree modifiers

Adverbs may be qualified by a degree modifier like very, fairly, too, so, or rather